《欧洲:欧洲文明如何塑造现代世界》中一些被审查的内容

虫子游戈
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IPFS
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欧洲:欧洲文明如何塑造现代世界》是一本讲述欧洲文艺复兴之后的历史的书,书中泛泛而谈了欧洲近代发展的各个方面。这本书是中信出版社出版的,是西班牙学者 Julio MacLennan 的英语著作《Europa: How Europe Shaped the Modern World》的汉译本。我在看这本书前就隐约猜到这本书中必然存在被审查的内容,尤其是涉及中国的内容。看完之后,我找到原书简单搜索对比了一下,找到了不少被审查的内容。但很遗憾,这本明显被大量审查删改过的书并未在明显位置对此给出解释。

下面是我找到的一些被审查的内容(相信还有很多我没找到的)。但在此之前,让我引用一句书中的话:「Where they burn books they will too in the end burn people.」即汉译本中写的“烧书的地方,最终会烧人。”——Heinrich Heinem(海因里希·海涅)。

第 7 章

  1. 原文:Both Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong admired Clausewitz’s work, as it provided guidance on how to promote political aims through war.
    译文:列宁对克劳塞维茨的这部作品钦服不已,它为如何通过战争实现政治目标提供了指导。

第 9 章

  1. Disappointment with the government and collective indignation at the way China had been humiliated by the West led a group of Chinese nationalists to form the Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.
    中国民众对政府极度失望,对西方羞辱中国极度愤慨,国内爆发了声势浩大的游行,两年后,中国共产党成立。

  2. Once in Russia Lenin and the Bolsheviks embarked on a plan to win the support of the population under a popular slogan: All power to the Soviets (workers councils), all land to the peasants, end of war.
    到达俄国后,列宁和布尔什维克党员开启了一项计划,为赢得民众支持,列宁提出了著名的《四月提纲》,其中一个大受欢迎的口号是,结束战争,土地归农民,权力归苏维埃(工人委员会)。

  3. “Each one imposed his own system as far as his army can reach,” opined the Communist dictator.
    斯大林说:“每个国家都可以把自己的制度推广到自己军队能到达的地方。

  4. ”Anything that went against the spirit of National Socialism was purged.
    所有违背纳粹主义精神的东西都被清除。

第 10 章

  1. The great physicist was lecturing in the United States in April 1933 when he received the news that the new National Socialist government had passed a law that forbade the occupation of any official post by Jews, including university chairs. His name was also included in a list of so-called enemies of the regime that was published in the press.
    1933年4月,这位伟大的物理学家在美国讲课时收到一个消息,德国政府通过了一项法律,禁止犹太人担任包括大学教授在内的任何官方职位,他的名字出现在新闻公布的政府敌对分子名单里。

第 11 章

第 11 章是审查的重灾区。

  1. French agony in Indochina was even longer. After 1949, Ho Chi Minh’s insurgent troops counted on the support of the powerful People’s Republic of China. After his rise to absolute power in 1949 Mao Zedong became one of the most feared enemies of Western Europe and the rest of the Western world.
    The birth of communist China also demonstrated that communism would not only triumph in industrial nations, as Marx had predicted, but also in agrarian ones. Mao, who set himself the aim of recovering China’s power, was not only a determined advocate of decolonization but would also offer to help any peasant movement that revolted against colonization or bourgeois interests. His first opportunity to do it was in neighboring Indochina.
    法国在法属印度支那苦撑了更久。1949年后,胡志明的部队得到了强大的新中国的支持。
    在中国诞生的社会主义政权表明,共产主义不仅会像马克思预测的那样在工业国家取得胜利,在农业国家也可能取胜。毛泽东不仅坚定地主张去殖民化,而且也愿意帮助反抗殖民主义和资产阶级的农民运动。

  2. Supported by China, communist leader Ho Chi Minh’s troops in the Vietnamese jungle became an unbeatable enemy to France.
    在中国的支持下,胡志明的部队躲进越南的丛林中,法国人根本无法打败他们。

  3. For Mao Zedong’s regime, Hong Kong was the maximum symbol of Chinese humiliation before European colonization.
    对中国人来说,香港象征着欧洲殖民主义对中国的羞辱。

  4. The fact that China, the most populous country and a great civilization, became communist gave this ideology formidable clout. But this ideology had also been in crisis since the death of Mao Zedong, and faced serious threats to survive. In the 1980s China began experimenting with a partial introduction of the market economy in order to avoid the system’s collapse, but discontent continued spreading, particularly among the urban generations that demanded democratic reforms and less repression. This led to the Tiananmen Square protests in summer 1989, in which several hundred people were killed by police forces.Unlike the USSR and its European satellites, the Chinese government did not hesitate to use all forms of repression to ensure the survival of the regime. On the other hand China learned from the collapse of the Soviet Union and speeded up a process of economic transformation into what was called a socialist market economy. In this way capitalism was to return to China, but under the control of the state and the supervision of the Communist Party.
    中国这个世界上人口最多的伟大的文明古国成了社会主义国家,为这一意识形态增加了巨大的影响力。20世纪80年代起,中国吸取教训,实行改革开放,加速经济转型,推行社会主义市场经济体制。

  5. In 1991 communism was not only abolished but its disappearance also provoked the end of the Soviet Union.
    1991年,苏联解体。

  6. The Soviet Empire was dissolved eleven years after it attained its greatest expansion in 1980.
    1980年,苏联达到最巅峰时期;11年后,苏联完全解体。

  7. On the other hand its legacy regarding liberty and human rights was disastrous. Terror was the inseparable companion of the Soviet state throughout its seven decades of existence, reaching unbearable levels during the time of Stalin. As a result of the famous book The Gulag Archipelago, by the dissident writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the world could find out about the reality of the forced labor camps where so many of the convicts faced a tragic end. After the fall of the Soviet Union, it became known that the work of the prisoners in the Gulag generated around a ten percent of Soviet production. A regime that claimed to stand against all sorts of slavery ended up benefitting from slave labor.
    The data about the victims of terror and repression in the Soviet Union from 1917 varies a lot. According to the Black Book of Communism, published by several academics in 1997, the number of deaths could reach a minimum of twenty million.
    As communism spread around the world similar methods of violent repression were used, although some leaders applied them with more rigor. This was particularly the case of the founding father of the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong, who learned from the Soviet Union that violence on a grand scale was necessary in order to consolidate a communist regime. Around sixty-five million Chinese people died from repression in Communist China according to the Black Book. In Cambodia, the number of deaths caused by Pol Pot’s regime was around two million people, which constituted twenty percent of the population. Vietnam was responsible for about one million deaths and North Korea around two million. As regards the Marxist regimes in Africa, its victims were around 1,700,000 deaths; and in Latin America, 150,000.
    Communism, a movement that aimed at setting human beings free from all forms of injustice caused the death of over ninety million people in the twentieth century. Communist expansion ended up being more lethal than any other imperial movement with which it can be compared, including European colonialism. There is no reliable data that allows us to have an accurate figure for the number of deaths caused by European colonial expansion from the fifteenth century. It is evident that the victims of crimes, executions, and forced labor, as well as slavery and genocide associated with colonialism, would reach several million and affect a wide range of peoples throughout the world. But no colonial regime developed such systematic, repressive structures, nor did it manage to eliminate so many people within such a short time span.
    另一方面,苏联时期的负面影响也很明显。部分持不同政见者遭受了不公正待遇。
    (这里大量内容被删除。)

  8. This is one of the reasons why the communist revolution initially only succeeded in Russia, which is a Eurasian country, and the attempt to expand it to Central and Eastern Europe ultimately failed. For let us not forget that the collapse of communism was caused by the 1989 revolutions in Europe.
    正因如此,共产主义革命最初只能在俄国取得成功,在中欧和东欧最后都失败了。

  9. The negotiations for Hong Kong’s change of sovereignty were very complex, as they implied ceding sovereignty of a territory governed by the market economy to a communist power. This was one of the reasons why so many citizens from the colony wished to emigrate. The only great concession that the British government obtained from the Chinese was that the city would enjoy an autonomous status for fifty years, and it would continue to be governed by the market economy. In spite of all, one of the great mass migrations provoked by decolonization was the one that took place in Hong Kong. Over one million people emigrated between 1985 and 1997 at the prospect of the change of sovereignty. The exodus continued after 1999.
    (这一段完全被删除了。)

  10. The Chinese model of the socialist market economy would inspire neighboring Vietnam, which gradually opened itself to market forces and tourism. North Korea, on the other hand, remained loyal to communist orthodoxy and could only survive at the cost of becoming one of the most isolated countries in the world.
    中国的社会主义市场经济模式激励了邻国越南,越南也开始逐渐开放市场和旅游。

  11. Communism was successfully established first in North Korea and North Vietnam, then in Cuba.
    朝鲜和越南民主共和国首先建立了社会主义政权,然后是古巴。

结语章/Conclusion

  1. President Donald Trump, at present, defies many of the Jeffersonian and Wilsonian principles that have guided US international policy. China, led by President Xi Jinping shows staunch determination to attain world hegemony at all costs. Russia under Vladimir Putin is also determined to consolidate its role at the cost of the West.
    特朗普总统违弃了指导美国对外政策的杰斐逊原则和威尔逊原则。普京领导的俄罗斯也决心以牺牲西方为代价,巩固自己的全球角色

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