AI and nudging
推力理論是把心理學的概念導入經濟學中，是由Richard Thaler和Cass Sunstein兩位都待過芝加哥大學的教授提出，前者是諾貝爾經濟學獎得主，後者是著名的憲法學者。推力的精神，是透過對人的理性、選擇的偏誤、社會偏好等的分析與了解，不妨礙與強制人們的決定，也不會間接地增加人們選擇其他選項的負擔，而是透過溫和的引導，使人們做出特定、或更有利於自己、或更好的選擇。
People make decisions and take actions to improve their viability everyday, and they increasingly turn to artificial intelligence (AI) to assist with their decision making. Such trends suggest the need to determine how AI and other cognitive technologies affect value co-creation. An integrative framework, based on the service-dominant logic and nudge theory, conceptualizes smart nudging as uses of cognitive technologies to affect people’s behaviour predictably, without limiting their options or altering their economic incentives. Several choice architectures and nudges affect value co-creation, by (1) widening resource accessibility, (2) extending engagement, or (3) augmenting human actors’ agency. Although cognitive technologies are unlikely to engender smart outcomes alone, they enable designs of conditions and contexts that promote smart behaviours, by amplifying capacities for self-understanding, control, and action. This study offers a conceptualization of actors’ value co-creation prompted by AI-driven nudged choices, in terms of re-institutionalizing processes that affect agency and practices.
What is new, however, are the various ways in which this can now be done online, for example, by manipulating our search results, through suggestive search engines, purchasing recommendations, targeted advertisements, and even by integrating advertising into our social media feeds. Moreover, governments, corporations, and other institutions now have the capacity to target nudges for each individual. By using algorithms that operate on big data, nudges can be customized for individuals and their effectiveness can be tracked and adjusted as the algorithm learns from feedback data tracking a user’s behaviour. These technologies raise a bunch of new ethical questions, about paternalism, consent, privacy, and manipulation. In this talk I will examine the ethics of nudging effects of AI systems on human behaviour (e.g. influence of recommendations) as well as how humans might in turn nudge these AI systems to achieve more desirable outcomes.
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