The technology that can perform practically any task on the screen


At first view, it appears to be a historical artifact from the 1980s. The computer screen was quite small, and the writing that was moving across it was of low resolution and flickered. That being said, this might be the future.

The technology known as perovskite light emitting diode (PeLED) was utilized in the production of the screen. It is a significant departure from the LED technology that is now utilized in the display of your smartphone, and it has the potential to result in devices that are more compact, less expensive, and have a longer battery life.

Additionally, PeLEDs are particularly uncommon in that they can absorb light in addition to emitting it. This means that it is possible to utilize the same material to incorporate touch, fingerprint, and ambient light-sensing capabilities, according to Feng Gao, who is a professor at Linkoping University in Sweden.

Although this is challenging, we believe that it is not impossible.

In today's smartphones, these operations are carried out by electrical components that are independent from the screen itself of the phone.

Professor Gao and his colleagues displayed their prototype, which already exhibited touch and ambient light sensitivity, in a paper that was published in the month of April.

"This is a very impressive demonstration...” In Switzerland, Fluxim is a technology research company, and Daniele Braga, who is the head of sales and marketing for the company, claims that it is extremely young. On the other hand, he points out that the optimization of all the various functionalities that are promised here might make it impossible to commercialize this form of display in a timely manner.

Professor Gao demonstrates the most recent iteration of the technology through the use of a video call. This time around, the pixels per inch (ppi), which is a measurement of the sharpness of the display, has been virtually doubled, coming in at 90 ppi. This happens to be another panel that is on the smaller side.

On the screen, a straightforward animation is playing, which depicts two stick figures engaging in combat. Not too long ago, a publication that contains additional information regarding this prototype was published.

Perovskite is a mineral that has a crystal structure that contains calcium, titanium, and oxygen in a specific arrangement. The discovery of this material occurred in the 1800s; however, it was not until much later that people realized that it was possible to create various types of perovskites that had the same structure but had different elements or molecules as its constituents.

It is possible for perovskites to be exceptionally effective at a variety of tasks, like as conducting electricity or generating light, depending on the materials that are used.

As Dr. Braga explains, the production of perovskites is a reasonably straightforward and inexpensive procedure. "By slightly tuning the chemical composition, you can cover the full visible spectrum," he says. When mass production is taken into consideration, this is a tremendous amount.

However, there are a few issues to consider.

It is well known that PeLEDs are notoriously unstable; for example, they will fail if they are exposed to oxygen or moisture. The development of new types of PeLEDs is now being worked on by Loreta Muscarella at the university of VU Amsterdam.

According to her, if you leave a PeLED lying around for a few hours or days, the color of light that it emits will progressively deteriorate or shift to a less pure version of, for example, green than the green that you want it to emit.

In addition, this calls into question the very purpose of perovskites. They may be set to emit a very particular and highly pure version of red, green, or blue, which are the key hues required for full-color digital displays. This is one of the reasons why they are desirable.

According to Professor Gao, PeLEDs can be enclosed in glue or resin in order to maintain their stability. However, researchers are carrying on with their efforts to guarantee that the technology will not fail over an extended period of time.

According to Dr. Muscarella, the lifespans of regular LEDs are at least 50,000 hours, while the lifespans of PeLEDs are still in the range of hundreds to thousands of hours.

She goes on to say that it might be years before you are able to purchase a commercial product that has a PeLED.

On the other hand, there is a different kind of light-emitting perovskite that you might see more readily available on the market.

The use of photoluminescence is essential. This is not an LED in the traditional sense; rather, it is a filter or a substance that resembles a film that absorbs light of a specific color and then re-emits it in that color.

The essential red, green, and blue colors that are used in each pixel on the screen are supplied by a colored filter in some of the televisions that are currently available on the market.

When you combine those colors at varying intensities, you are able to achieve the range of tones that is necessary to effectively present a complete picture.

In order to illuminate the red, green, and blue filters, an LED backlight is utilized. However, the filters that are available today really block a significant amount of that light.

Instead, photoluminescent perovskites allow almost all of the light to pass through, which would result in a significant increase in both the brightness and the efficiency of the device.

The British business Helio is currently working on this project. One of the videos that can be found on their website demonstrates how a perovskite film that is either red or green in color can almost precisely re-emit blue light as either red or green.

There is a significant difference between the technology that Professor Gao and his colleagues are developing. LEDs, which are themselves manufactured with perovskites, are being used in the experimentation that is being done with screens that provide light emission.

Electroluminescent perovskites are the name given to these materials. As was noted earlier, they are not very stable, and working with them might be challenging due to the fact that they are sensitive to electrical fields. On the other hand, in the long run, they might become even more effective choices for lighting up the red, green, and blue pixels on a smartphone, tablet, or television screen without the need for any color filters at all.

It is possible that the most significant benefits of adopting this technology would be a reduction in the cost of these gadgets as well as a decrease in the amount of energy that they consume.

A future PeLED display may spend substantially less energy than, for example, an OLED screen; nevertheless, laboratory investigations indicate that PeLEDs are now competitive with OLEDs and may one day significantly surpass them in terms of efficiency, according to Dr. Muscarella. No one is entirely sure how much less energy a PeLED display would consume in the future.

Together with Professor Henry Snaith of the University of Oxford, Professor Sir Richard Friend of the University of Cambridge is one of the individuals who were instrumental in the establishment of Helio. He mentions that one of the difficulties associated with PeLEDs is the difficulty of directing the light that they generate in the appropriate direction. This is the most important aspect of displays.

He goes on to explain that in order to avoid being trapped going in the opposite direction, it is necessary to emit light in the forward direction.

In order to find a solution to this issue, researchers are experimenting with a wide variety of various approaches. For instance, Dr. Muscarella and his colleagues have attempted to increase light emission by imprinting a rough nanoscale pattern on the surface of PeLEDs. This appears to be effective.

Professor Gao, on the other hand, who has collaborated with Professor Sir Friend on publications and who obtained his doctoral degree from the University of Cambridge in 2011, is eagerly anticipating the arrival of PeLED panels that are capable of performing a great deal more than simply emitting light.

A single slab of layered materials, with the all-important light-absorbing perovskite in the middle, could one day be used to perform a variety of tasks, including fingerprint authentication, heart-rate sensing, and light detection.

"It's really very unique," he exclaims, expressing his enthusiasm. The use of other LED technologies does not allow for this to be accomplished.


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